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Procedures

Glossary

The definitions below are grouped into logical categories rather than listed alphabetically.

Areas of the Boat

bow
the front of the boat
stern
the back of the boat
port
the left side of the boat (when standing in the boat and looking toward the bow)
starboard
the right side of the boat
figure 1
Figure 1
foredeck
the forward part of the boat (in general, the area between the bow and the cockpit)
  • the deck crew works on the foredeck; these crew members hoist and lower the sails (mainsail, jib, and spinnaker), and handle the sails and the spinnaker pole when the boat tacks or jibes
cockpit
the pit area in the stern part of the boat
  • the skipper (Rod), the mainsheet trimmer, and the grinders work in the cockpit
companionway
the stairway between the cockpit and the cabin below
windward
the upwind side of the boat (this will be the high side)
leeward
the downwind side of the boat (this will be the low side)
  • note that "leeward" is pronounced "lew-ward"
  • the boat always has a windward and leeward side; which side is windward and which side is leeward depends on the direction of the wind and the boat
  • if the wind is coming over the port (left) side of the boat, the boat is on a port tack
  • if the wind is coming over the right (starboard) side of the boat, the boat is on a starboard tack
lazarette
a small storage compartment at the stern end of the boat
  • the port lazarette stores fenders
  • the starboard lazarette stores lines (including the lightweight spinnaker sheets), the red protest flag, and a hook that we can use to retrieve items (or people) that fall overboard

Parts of the Boat

mast
the tall vertical pole in the center of the boat
boom
the horizontal pole perpendicular to the mast
figure 2
Figure 2
spinnaker pole
the 10í pole that keeps the spinnaker out (away) from the boat; it goes on the windward side
  • the "inboard" or "butt" end of the pole is the end attached to the mast
  • the "outboard" end of the pole is the end thatís away from the boat
[TODO: keel]
standing rigging
lines, wires, and rods that are more or less fixed in position while the boat is under sail; standing rigging, which generally helps support the mast or other parts of the boat, includes:
forestay
the wire between the top of the mast and the bow – it holds the mast forward
backstay
the wire between the top of the mast and the stern – it holds the mast backward
shrouds
the wires that holds the mast from side to side
spreaders
the horizontal bars that keep the shrouds away from the mast
lifelines
the wire safety ropes that run along the outer edge of the deck
stanchions
the posts on the outer edge of the deck that support the lifelines
running rigging
lines and wires that change fairly often while under sail; running rigging usually operates through blocks and helps control sails
line
a rope
  • there are many different lines on a boat – each has a specific name and performs a specific function
  • see the lines section below for a list of the different lines and what they do
winch
a cylinder-shaped device around which lines are wound
  • winches provide a mechanical advantage to help pull lines in or let them out
  • see working with winches for a description of the winches on Northern Light and instructions on how to use the winches
rail
the perimeter edge of the deck that runs between the bow and the stern
  • there are 2 rails – the port rail and the starboard rail
[TODO: cleat shackle block fenders fairleads - Eyes or blocks that guide lines in a desired direction lazy walker - checks out the new lazy jib sheet and makes sure it's running free heel override bos'n chair ]

Sails

mainsail
the sail attached to the mast and the boom
jib
the sail attached to the forestay (see Figure 2 above)
  • there are 2 jibs on Northern Light:
    • # 95 (small jib used in heavy wind)
    • # 130 (large jib used in light wind)
spinnaker
the colorful sail used when sailing downwind (see Working with a Spinnaker)
  • this sail is sometimes called a chute or kite
  • there are three spinnakers on Northern Light:
    • 1.5 oz. (green and yellow spinnaker used in heavy wind; stored in the orange turtle)
    • 0.75 oz. (black, blue, green, and white spinnaker used in lighter wind; stored in blue turtle)
    • 0.5 oz. (used in really light wind; stored in blue turtle)
Storage bags
sausage bag
a bag used to store a jib
  • the zippers on sausage bags are rip-apart zippers – when you are ready to hoist a jib, just rip the sides of the bag apart with your hands
turtle
a bag used to store a spinnaker
Parts of a Sail

Each sail has three corners and three edges. The corners and edges each have specific names; these names are listed below and shown in Figure 3.

Corners:

head
the top corner
tack
the “forward” corner (mainsail – on the mast; jib – on the forestay; spinnaker – attached to the pole)
  • tip to help you remember which corner is the tack: when a boat is sailing into the wind, it needs to tack – the tack is the windward corner
clew
the “back” corner closest to the stern
  • on the spinnaker, sometimes the two lower corners are both called clews, even though technically the corner attached to the pole is the tack and the free corner is the clew
  • tip to help you remember which corner is the clew: the skipper, usually at the stern end of the boat, hopefully has a "clue" about what's going on – the clew is near the stern

Edges:

foot
the bottom edge of the sail (between the tack and the clew)
luff
the forward edge of the sail (between the head and the tack)
leech
the rear edge of the sail (between the head and the clew)
  • tips to help you remember which edge is the luff and which is the leech: the word "leech" is longer than the word "luff" – the leech is the long edge of the sail (the hypotenuse)
figure 3
Figure 3

Additional parts of a sail:

telltale
a small piece of yarn or tape that is attached to a sail and free to flow in the direction of the breeze
  • telltales tell the crew whether the sails are trimmed optimally for maximum speed
  • telltales on the port side of a sail are usually red; telltales on the starboard side are usually green
cringle
a metal grommet or ring that reinforces a hole in a sail; lines or hooks can be attached through a cringle to control the sail (e.g., when reefing the sail)
Things You Can Do to a Sail
[TODO: hoist lower reef trim bring in let out fly skirt adjust leech line (leech), cunningham (luff), outhaul flattener (foot) -- add these to lines below ]

Lines

halyard
line that attaches to the head of a sail; used to hoist (raise) a sail
there are 4 halyard on Northern Light:
  • mainsail halyard: hoists the mainsail – always on the starboard side of the mast
  • jib halyard: hoists the jib – always on the port side of the mast
  • spinnaker halyards: hoist the spinnaker
    • there are 2 spinnaker halyards – green on the starboard side of mast, red on the port side of mast
jib sheet
line that controls the trim of the jib; this line wraps around the front winch in the cockpit
  • note that there are 2 jib sheets – both are attached to the jibís clew, and one sheet is rigged on each side of the boat
  • the working jib sheet is the line under "stress" – it holds the jib in place on the leeward side of the boat
  • the lazy jib sheet is the line that is not working – it is on the windward side of the boat
topping lift
line that holds the spinnaker pole up
foreguy
line that pulls the spinnaker pole down to the foredeck (think "foreguy" → "foredeck")
afterguy
line attached to the outboard tip of the pole; used to pull the pole back & ease the pole forward
  • before you pull back the pole with the afterguy, you need to release the foreguy; tip to remember this: the guys "fight" – when you adjust one guy, you need to release (and then tighten) the other guy
spinnaker sheet
line that attaches to the free corner of the spinnaker; used to control the spinnaker trim
note that the spinnaker has:
  • 2 halyards (red on left side of mast; green on right side of mast; use the halyard on the opposite side of the spinnaker pole to raise the spinnaker)
  • 2 afterguys
  • 2 spinnaker sheets (there is one afterguy and one sheet attached to each lower corner of the spinnaker)
runner
black line that pulls the top of the mast backward to shape the mainsail and the jib
  • this line is called the "running backstay" or runner for short
  • there are 2 runners (port and starboard)
  • the runners wrap around the secondary (rear) winches in the cockpit
cunningham
line used to stretch the luff of the mainsail (it pulls the luff down, opposite to the halyard)
  • follow Rodís directions for when/how to adjust the cunningham
outhaul flattener
line used to stretch the foot of the mainsail
boom vang
line used to pull the boom down (on a broad reach) or let it ride up (on a close haul)
  • put on the boom vang when heading downwind to keep the mainsail from hitting the shrouds
  • release the boom vang when heading upwind
[TODO: working ___ lazy ___ leech line reefing line ]
Things You Can Do to a Line
raise / lower
eg: “raise the jib halyard” means to pull on the jib halyard until the jib is raised as high as it will go
release
let the line go
  • you may first need to take the line off a cleat and/or a winch before you can release it
  • you may need to keep control of the line Ė donít necessarily let it go all the way
  • eg: “release the topping lift” means to uncleat the topping lift and let it go, but keep it under control so that the spinnaker pole doesnít just smash down to the deck
blow
let the line go freely
  • eg: “blow the jib sheet” means to take the jib sheet off the winch and let it run freely
put on
pull the line tighter and cleat it off
  • eg: “put on the outhaul flattener” means to uncleat the outhaul flattener, pull it to stretch the foot of the mainsail, and cleat it off again
take off
uncleat the line, let it go a bit, and cleat it off again
  • eg: “outhaul flattener off” means to uncleat the outhaul flattener, let it go a bit so that the foot of the mainsail is not as taught, and cleat it off again
tension
pull the line until all the slack in it is taken up, and then cleat it off
  • eg: “tension the topping lift” means to pull the topping lift until all the slack is gone, then cleat it off
sheet in / sheet out
pull the line in or let it out
  • eg: when flying the spinnaker, “sheet in” means to pull the spinnaker sheet in; when sailing to weather (upwind), “sheet in” means to pull the jib sheet in
[TODO: grind clear ]

Things that the Boat Does

[TODO: tack jibe heel round-up head up, fall off / bear away ]

Points of Sail

point of sail
a direction in which the boat sails relative to the direction of the wind
  • Each point of sail has a specific name, as shown in Figure 4 below. Boats cannot sail directly into the wind, or in a "no-sail zone" about 30° to the left and right of the wind direction.
figure 4
Figure 4

Directions & Courses

[TODO: to weather? to lee? port tack? starboard tack? mark ]